Adaptive optics technology for high-resolution retinal imaging

Marco Lombardo, Sebastiano Serrao, Nicholas Devaney, Mariacristina Parravano, Giuseppe Lombardo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effects of optical aberrations. The direct visualization of the photoreceptor cells, capillaries and nerve fiber bundles represents the major benefit of adding AO to retinal imaging. Adaptive optics is opening a new frontier for clinical research in ophthalmology, providing new information on the early pathological changes of the retinal microstructures in various retinal diseases. We have reviewed AO technology for retinal imaging, providing information on the core components of an AO retinal camera. The most commonly used wavefront sensing and correcting elements are discussed. Furthermore, we discuss current applications of AO imaging to a population of healthy adults and to the most frequent causes of blindness, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. We conclude our work with a discussion on future clinical prospects for AO retinal imaging.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)334-366
Number of pages33
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2013


  • Adaptive optical systems
  • Biomedical imaging techniques
  • Eye
  • Optical sensors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry


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