A snapshot of exhaled nitric oxide and asthma characteristics: experience from high to low income countries

Patrizia Pignatti, Dina Visca, Stelios Loukides, Anne Grete Märtson, Jan Willem C. Alffenaar, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Antonio Spanevello

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Nitric oxide is a gas produced in the airways of asthmatic subjects and related to T2 inflammation. It can be measured as fractional nitric oxide (FeNO) in the exhaled air and used as a non-invasive, easy to evaluate, rapid marker. It is now widely used in many settings to determine airway inflammation. The aim of this narrative review is to report relationship between FeNO and the physiopathologic characteristics of asthmatic patients. Factors affecting FeNO levels have also been analysed as well as the impact of corticosteroid, target therapies and rehabilitation programs. Considering the availability of the test, spreading this methodology to low income countries has also been considered as a possibility for evaluating airway inflammation and monitoring adherence to inhaled corticosteroid therapy. PubMed data search has been performed restricted to English language papers. Research was limited to studies in adults unless studies in children were the only ones reported for a particular issue. This revision could be useful to summarize the role of FeNO in relation to asthma characteristics and help in the use of FeNO in different clinical settings particularly in low income countries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)44-58
Number of pages15
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2022


  • Airway inflammation
  • Comorbidities
  • FeNO
  • Rehabilitation
  • Therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine


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