A multimodal brain-based feedback and communication system

Thilo Hinterberger, Nicola Neumann, Mirko Pham, Andrea Kübler, Anke Grether, Nadine Hofmayer, Barbara Wilhelm, Herta Flor, Niels Birbaumer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Thought Translation Device (TTD) is a brain-computer interface based on the self-regulation of slow cortical potentials (SCPs) and enables completely paralyzed patients to communicate using their brain potentials. Here, an extended version of the TTD is presented that has an auditory and a combined visual and auditory feedback modality added to the standard visual feedback. This feature is necessary for locked-in patients who are no longer able to focus their gaze. In order to test performance of physiological regulation with auditory feedback 54 healthy participants were randomly assigned to visual, auditory or combined visual-auditory feedback of slow cortical potentials. The training consisted of three sessions with 500 trials per session with random assignment of required cortical positivity or negativity in half of the trials. The data show that physiological regulation of SCPs can be learned with auditory and combined auditory and visual feedback although the performance of auditory feedback alone was significantly worse than with visual feedback alone.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)521-526
Number of pages6
JournalExperimental Brain Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2004


  • Auditory feedback
  • Slow cortical potentials (SCPs)
  • Thought translation device (TTD)
  • Visual feedback

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)


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